“Memory “illusions” may result from the basic human need to make sense out of events. A series of experiments has provided the first scientific evidence that when people see effects (a student toppling onto the floor) without also seeing its cause (a student leaning back in a chair), they automatically “fill in the blank” with that probable cause — even if they haven’t actually seen it with their own two eyes… Because memory for pictures tends to be very accurate and robust, the experiments used pictorial stimuli, not the more typically studied text stimuli, as a more rigorous test of the error. What’s more, ‘we put a lot of confidence in things that we have seen with our own eyes,’ says Reinitz, ‘so applications to real-world situations are probably more varied and interesting than would be the case if we used text.'”